Form 1042-S is, conceptually, much like Form 1099 for US citizens and persons residing in the US. The difference being that the payments reported on Form 1042-S are amounts paid to foreign persons (including persons presumed to be foreign) that are subject to withholding, even if no amount is deducted and withheld from the payment because of a treaty or Code exception to taxation or if any amount withheld was repaid to the payee. Examples of payments to foreign persons include, but are not limited to: Corporate distributions; Interest; Rents; Royalties; Compensation for independent personal services performed in the United States; Compensation for dependent personal services performed in the United States (but only if the beneficial owner is claiming treaty benefits); Annuities; Pension distributions and other deferred income; Most gambling winnings; Cancellation of indebtedness; Effectively connected income (effectively connected income to the US); Notional principal contract income; and REMIC excess inclusions. To state the obvious, each situation is different and should be carefully analyzed. If you or your business needs assistance preparing Form 1042-S and 1042, or just discussing withholding requirements, contact Paul by clicking here.